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What then has changed in their post-Cold War security and defence policy identity that has prompted the shift from complete neutrality in security matters to an alignment with EU defence? The reasons for neutrality, however, varied. After the Second World War, Austria, much like Germany, was divided into occupation zones among the winners.

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In the Soviet Union stated that their zone could be unified with the rest if Austria were to declare itself neutral. Thus, in order to be reunified neutrality was agreed upon. Hence, neutrality came to be deeply embedded in the Austrian defence and security policy identity. Finland was neutral and militarily non-aligned for an obvious reason: in order to balance between the West and the East. The infamous Paasikivi-Kekkonen doctrine indeed held that Finland should avoid any politics which were against the Soviet Union and this made neutrality the best option for us.

Ireland has been a neutral state since the s. Arguably, Ireland does not feel much threatened and the country has become used to their neutral standing and thus NATO membership is not seen as needed. The Napoleonic Wars in the 19 th century led to great territorial losses, such as losing Finland to Russia. All states, however, aspired to be part of the Western European integration process, and thus part of the EU as well.

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There were multiple reasons for the transition from neutrality to post-neutrality. One reason was that ideological factors within the states changed. Presentation About us Internal organisation Diagnosis Positioning Our modes of action Philanthropy and responsible investment Documentary resources. Our partners Our network Partners map. Where to find us? Where can you find us? Euro-ISME Identity card The European chapter of the International Society for Military Ethics ISME has been created in with the aim to establish a European forum for the discussion and exchange of ideas on professional responsibility and military ethics, and to promote comprehensive and systematic analysis in the field of military ethics and of the law of armed conflict in accordance with the principles of humanitarian law and human rights.

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The field of cyber threats have been emerging over the last years. Since , the European Union has changed its paradigm in the field of defence. But how can we give body and life to this Security and Home page About Write for us de en es fr it nl pl.

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