He was not successful in school and the teachers advised Nils against to let his son become a priest. After advise from the teacher in natural science, Dr.
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Rothman , Carl instead got permission to study medicine. In Carl moved to Lund for medicine studies. In Lund he could wholeheartedly devote himself to medicine and natural history. He wrote in one of his autobiographies that it then became as fun to study as it earlier had been unpleasant. Carl stayed only one year in Lund before he, again after advice from Dr. Rothman, moved to Uppsala. In Carl was enrolled at the faculty of medicine at the University of Uppsala. As a student without means Carl soon got influential friends. In the botanical garden in Uppsala Carl met the dean in Uppsala, Olof Celsius , who was very interested in botany.
Celsius helped Carl financially and for a while Carl stayed in Celsius house before he moved to professor Olof Rudbeck fil. Professor Olof Rudbeck fil. As a botanical demonstrator Carl renewed the badly looked after botanical garden and introduced new, rare plants. He also began to teach botanical theory, which was something completely new. He developed his thoughts in this subject and published them in in Philosophia botanica. Linnaeus stayed only a short time as a botanical demonstrator.
After an application to the Royal Science Society in Uppsala, Linnaeus got a grant for a scientific journey to Lappland in norhern Sweden.
Linnaeus had a long time nourished a wish to see Lappland and Rudbeck probably had enticed him by telling him about his own journey to Torne lappmark. When a fire in Uppsala destroyed the natural history specimens Rudbeck collected in , Lappland was from a natural history point of view, still unknown. On the 12th of May Linnaeus alone rode towards the north and five months later, on the 10th of October, he was back in Uppsala.
The story about Linnaeus' journey attracted attention, not only in Uppsala, but also outside the country. Linnaeus account of the journey was extensive. He did not only make observations about nature he was also interested in the Sami culture. His major effort however was the botanical descriptions. In his Flora Lapponica he described the vegetation of an almost unknown part of Sweden.
After his tour to Lappland, Carl was broke because he had to pay parts of his journey himself. To earn his living he gave lectures, e. In the autumn , when he had saved enough money, he went to Falun in Dalarna for further studies in mineralogy. During his stay in Falun Linnaeus was commissioned by the county governor Nils Reuterholm to do a tour through Dalarna. He was expected to describe the province in the same way as he had done in Lappland. For this trip he got enough financial resources and several students participated volunterily. The group consisted in the end of ten persons, all with their own main task.
On July the third, the party left Falun to be back in town August 13th.
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During the trip the group thoroughly observed everything concerned to both nature and culture. Botanically the tour was a disappointment to Linnaeus who had expected a much richer flora. Linnaeus stayed on for a while with the county governor Reuterholm in Falun to finish of his account of the journey, Iter Dalecarlicum. The father of Linnaeus' friend Claes Sohlberg promised Carl to pay him an annual compensation if he accepted to be his sons tutor and bring him on his journey abroad. Carl accepted the proposal and he and Claes Sohlberg started their journey in February 20, They traveled via Hamburg and in May 5 they reached Harderwijk in the Netherlands.
The University of Hardevijk was famous for issuing quick examinations. In May 9, a few days after his arrival, Linnaeus got his MD. He defended a thesis about malaria where he connected the disease with the amount of clay in the water. Linnaeus had thought of returning to Sweden, but since he had run out of money, he instead followed his friend Sohlberg to Leiden.
In Leiden Linnaeus succeeded, as he used to do, to become acquainted with several rich, botanically interested persons who supported him financially. The senator of Leiden, Dr. Johan Fredrich Gronovius , paid for the publication of Linnaeus' Systema naturae.
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That invitation was especially meaningful as the nomadic Saami hold a reserve towards those outside their community and was a thoughtful gesture that affirmed her appreciation of my work. Ris'ten prepared a delicious dinner of reindeer stew, a specialty of the Saami cuisine, and the time we shared together was memorable. For generations Saami women as well as men engaged in reindeer herding. The sharing of such a primary subsistence activity has a precedent in the early history of the Saami, as recorded in the first century by Tacitus, who notes that women supported themselves by hunting along with the men.
In further appreciation Roseman writes: "I am deeply grateful to Ris'ten for her encouragement of my work, for bringing me into her home and that of her parents', and for kindly sharing with me a part of her family life and the Saami culture. Having painted portraits of Bier An'te, Biret, and An'te Niilas, Roseman asked Ris'ten if she would sit for him so that he could include a portrait of her in his work in Lappland. Ris'ten kindly offered her time which resulted in the oil on canvas portrait presented below, fig. Roseman recounts that Bier An'te was enthusiastic about sitting for him and in so doing, thoughtfully offered his encouragement to the artist in his work in Lappland.
Bier An'te is an impressive portrait with a strong presence of the individual, fig. With painterly textures and chiaroscuro modeling of light and shade, Roseman renders Bier An'te's white reindeer fur coat with red tassel and multi-colored decorative braiding. The voluminous, fur coat attests to the long, cold winters in Lappland. Bier An'te wears the traditional Saami hat worn by men from the region of Kautokeino. From the crown of the high hat emerge three dark, tubular forms of woolen material that the artist indicated by abstract, triangular shapes silhouetted against summary earth tones of the background.
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The episode of crossing the river in a rowboat carrying Bier An'te's daughter Ris'ten; her brother, who rowed the boat; An'te Niilas; Myrdene Anderson, and two herding dogs; as well as the artist and his colleague, who helped to transport the art materials, is related with photographs on the previous page.
Also related with text and photograph is the equally precarious return on foot some days later and carrying the paintings over a frozen stretch of the river. A portrait of Bier An'te is seen in the photograph of the exhibition at the top of the page and below. Another portrait of Bier An'te is presented at the top of the previous page and in fig.
The Saami man of advancing years looks pensively out from the canvas.
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The circular leitmotif of fur collar and white fur trim and bands of braiding on the hat bring the focus of the composition to the Saami man's face, which the artist has finely rendered with cool highlights and warm shading. Roseman writes: "Bier An'te's physiognomy and weathered complexion revealed a long, hard life as a reindeer herder in the harsh, Arctic terrain. Bier An'te's daughter Ris'ten is the subject of the portrait below, fig. Roseman writes of Ris'ten:. One chest is blue, the second red and the third white.
Besides, she takes along the washcloth she was washing herself with when the Son of the Sun arrived in the giant's land. The knots stand for three grades of wind strength, from breeze to strong gale, that are released when the knots are untied. The brothers of the giant's daughter come back from hunting seal, whale and walrus and discover that their sister is gone. The brothers sit down at the oars again and take up the chase after the Son of the Sun's ship. Soon they are right behind those fleeing, but then the giant's daughter unties the first knot.
The wind increases, takes hold of the sails and the brothers fall behind. But they don't give up their pursuit.
Soon they are again on the verge of catching up to the Son of the Sun's ship. They shout and threaten, gall melts and wrath seethes. But the giant's daughter longs for the bridal bed with the Son of the Sun. She unties the second knot, and right away the wind increases even more. The brothers see that the other boat is gaining a greater advantage again. When they begin to near the Son of the Sun's ship a third time, it is no longer sweat that is pressed forth on their foreheads, it is blood, and their hands leave impressions on the oars.